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4 New Hyperpigmentation Remedies Well worth the Cash|Properly+Good



With the Properly+Good SHOP, our editors put their years of know-how to work to be able to choose merchandise (from skincare to self care and past) they’re betting you’ll love. Whereas our editors independently choose these merchandise, making a purchase order by way of our hyperlinks might earn Properly+Good a fee. Completely happy purchasing! Discover the SHOP

Hyperpigmentation is among the many most typical pores and skin issues folks cope with—it impacts as much as 5 million folks within the US1—but it’s also notoriously one of many hardest to deal with. Due to the issue related to discovering efficient at-home options, getting rid of darkish spots has traditionally meant counting on in-office remedies like lasers and chemical peels—particularly for these with darker pores and skin tones. However now, that is began to vary.

Lately, the wonder trade has seen an inflow of recent know-how completely devoted to fading discoloration. Manufacturers like Lion Pose, Mom Science, RescueMD, and PillowtalkDerm have established themselves as leaders in innovation, putting us squarely within the Golden Age of treating hyperpigmentation. For the primary time (possibly ever), evenly-toned pores and skin is inside our attain—and our routines are all the higher for it.

What’s hyperpigmentation?

Hyperpigmentation is an umbrella time period that describes numerous various kinds of pores and skin discoloration together with post-inflammatory pigmentation (AKA zits scarring), solar spots, and melasma. It happens when the melanocytes in your pores and skin (the cells which can be answerable for pigment) go into overdrive and churn out further melanin, which might occur because of numerous components together with solar publicity, hormones, and irritation.

Whereas anybody can expertise hyperpigmentation, it tends to be extra frequent for these with darker complexions as a result of their melanocytes are extra delicate to varied triggers. “Folks with deeper pores and skin tones naturally have the next stage of melanin, the pigment answerable for pores and skin coloration,” says Michael Suzman, MD, board-certified plastic surgeon and founding father of RescueMD. “If there’s an extra of melanin current, it creates the proper surroundings for darkish spots to look.”

There are two primary varieties of hyperpigmentation: Localized, which exhibits up in small patches (like zits scarring and solar spots); and subtle, which tends to cowl a bigger space (like melasma). Relying in your pores and skin’s situation and the underlying explanation for the hyperpigmentation, a few of these patches might naturally fade over time, whereas others would possibly require weeks and even months of consideration and care to resolve.

How hyperpigmentation has traditionally been handled

“Hyperpigmentation is among the most tough pores and skin circumstances to deal with, because the injury tends to happen each superficially in addition to within the deeper layers of the pores and skin,” says Dr. Suzman. “Due to this, many remedies might be fairly damaging to the pores and skin to be able to attain the deeper layers.”

Although there have lengthy been components in the marketplace that may assist with hyperpigmentation, none has confirmed to be excellent (besides, in fact, sunscreen, which might stop it from taking place within the first place). Take vitamin C—which has lengthy been touted as a cure-all for discoloration—for instance. “Framing vitamin C it as the last word resolution to darkish spots is completely false,” says Shereene Idriss, MD, founding father of Idriss Dermatology and PillowtalkDerm Skincare. She explains that whereas vitamin C can assist with brightening, it’s essential to pair it with different components like alpha arbutin, kojic acid, licorice root, and niacinamide, to see important results on discoloration. “If you’re coping with hyperpigmentation and melasma, it’s not a single-ingredient remedy plan. You must goal the pigment pathway and the way pigment is produced at numerous totally different checkpoints, which require a mixture of components,” she explains.

Retinol has additionally gotten some glory for treating hyperpigmentation as a result of it “will increase cell turnover, which can assist cut back the looks of marks and spots,” says Ellie Copsey, product improvement supervisor at Isle of Paradise, which not too long ago launched a line of body-care merchandise that sort out hyperpigmentation from the neck down. Nevertheless, “It is well-known that it might probably make the pores and skin extra delicate, which might enhance the danger of additional UV-induced hyperpigmentation,” she provides.

And hydroquinone, a bleaching agent that was as soon as the preferred ingredient for hyperpigmentation, has fallen out of favor in recent times as a result of adverse unwanted effects that come together with utilizing it. “Extended and extreme use of it might probably result in a situation referred to as ochronosis, which entails pores and skin discoloration and thickening,” explains Dr. Idriss. Although the ingredient remains to be obtainable through prescription, over-the-counter gross sales of the controversial lively had been banned in 2020 as a part of the CARES Act.

Discovering efficient OTC hyperpigmentation remedies has been significantly difficult for these with deeper pores and skin tones. “There’s turn into an overarching consciousness of the shortage of scientific testing and analysis being accomplished on merchandise for folks of coloration,” says Madhu Punjabi, the co-founder and CEO of Lion Pose. In response to the Nationwide Library of Drugs2, solely 3 p.c of skin-care physicians are Black and dermatology textbooks not often include photographs of circumstances on minority pores and skin tones, which doesn’t add up as a result of “in America, over 50 p.c of individuals with medium-to-dark pores and skin tones endure from hyperpigmentation” she says. However due to a handful of recent launches (simply final week, Vaseline launched its Black Radiance Even Tone Nourishing Physique Lotion to deal with discoloration in Black and Brown Pores and skin) there are extra choices for everybody than ever earlier than.

Meet the manufacturers main innovation in hyperpigmentation remedies

The most recent improvements within the skin-tone night house deserve our recognition as a result of they’re tackling hyperpigmentation in considerate and inclusive methods. They’re using topical components which can be secure sufficient for all pores and skin tones to make use of each day, and help pores and skin restore extra organically than their predecessors.


RescueMD’s DNA Restore Advanced ($88) addresses pores and skin pigmentation by focusing on the pores and skin damage at a mobile stage. “The thought is that extra melanin manufacturing, scarring, redness, or texture adjustments is usually a response to irritation and mobile stress or damage,” explains Dr. Suzman.

The hero here’s a proprietary ingredient referred to as Lapachol, which slows the pores and skin’s therapeutic course of and contributes to extra efficacious therapeutic. “It tackles pores and skin injury on the supply by aiding within the pores and skin’s personal DNA restore,” says Dr. Suzman. He provides that “serving to management pores and skin damage and stress with Lapachol can assist the cells behave extra usually.” The ingredient works alongside sunflower-based lipids and currant seed extract, which battle mobile injury the inflammatory response attributable to free radicals and different accidents. In response to Dr. Suzman, this mix of components will stop melanocytes from being triggered, lessening the chance of hyperpigmentation.

Mom Science

To fight hyperpigmentation, Mom Science has harnessed the ability of a brand new antioxidant referred to as malessezin, a naturally-occurring element of our pores and skin microbiomes (enjoyable reality: it comes from malassezia furfur, the yeast that causes dandruff) that regulates melanin manufacturing.

“Most hyperpigmentation merchandise in the marketplace perform as tyrosinase inhibitors, that means that they battle discoloration by decreasing melanin manufacturing,” explains Pearl Grimes, MD, the model’s chief dermatologist. “Malassezin, nonetheless visibly fades hyperpigmentation in 3 ways: decreasing extra melanin manufacturing, lowering melanin transport to the higher layers of pores and skin, and minimizing melanin switch to the keratinocyte pores and skin cells.”

First, the ingredient slows the surplus manufacturing of melanin. Then, it slows the transport of that melanin to the uppermost layer of the pores and skin, which makes discoloration much less more likely to present up on the floor. Lastly, “it slows the switch from the melanocyte, which is the highway-like construction that melanin travels up by way of, to the keratinocyte, the highest layer of your pores and skin cells,” explains Ann Marie Einziger, the model’s founder.


Dr. Idriss’s purpose with PillowtalkDerm was to assist sufferers deal with hyperpigmentation extra rapidly than they may with different over-the-counter interventions. By analysis, she found that one of the best ways to fade discoloration was with a multi-ingredient, multi-factorial strategy that addresses each level alongside the pigment pathway: When the melanocyte cells make pigmentation (aka melanin), when that melanin will get put into little parcels referred to as melanosomes, and at last when these melanosomes are distributed into our keratinocytes (aka pores and skin cells), which determines how the pigment seems on our pores and skin.

The model’s three-step system—which features a masks, serum, and moisturizer—hits all of those checkpoints with actives like vitamin C, alpha arbutin, and a laundry record of exfoliating acids (glycolic, lactic, kojic, and tranexamic). “If you happen to take a look at the merchandise, every one hits it at a special stage, and the entire components goal totally different factors all through the pathway,” says Dr. Idriss. “The Flash Masks targets the melanocytes and in addition helps on the superficial stage by eliminating the entire useless pores and skin cells dwelling on the highest of your pores and skin, the serum minimizes melanin manufacturing, and the moisturizer works to decelerate how [the melanin] is unfold all through your pores and skin cells. Each by itself is a hero product, however the trio is a powerhouse.”

The synergy of the system helps to fade discoloration in eight weeks, whereas most conventional strategies take 12 to get the job accomplished.

Lion Pose

As talked about, there was a notable lack of efficient hyperpigmentation remedies for folks with darker pores and skin tones, which was high of thoughts in Lion Pose’s improvement. The model is working to make discoloration care extra inclusive and accessible by offering merchandise which have been examined on a variety of pores and skin sorts, tones, and textures, and is backed by actor Mindy Kaling.

Its hero product, UNSPOTTED 4X Acid Jelly Night time Serum ($79) pairs a 15 p.c mix of azelaic, glycolic, lactic, and tranexamic acids with antioxidants like glutathione to elevate away useless pores and skin cells, enhance the evenness of pores and skin tones, and visibly cut back darkish spots and zits scars. UNSPOTTED 4X was clinically examined on Fitzpatrick pores and skin tones 2-6, and 97 p.c of contributors noticed a discount in darkish spot measurement after eight weeks (and 93 p.c noticed outcomes after solely a month).

Properly+Good articles reference scientific, dependable, latest, strong research to again up the data we share. You’ll be able to belief us alongside your wellness journey.

  1. Melnick S, Lohani S, Alweis R. Hyperpigmentation in a center aged lady: a standard but underdiagnosed situation. J Group Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2016 Jul 6;6(3):31544. doi: 10.3402/jchimp.v6.31544. PMID: 27406454; PMCID: PMC4942510.
  2. El-Kashlan N, Alexis A. Disparities in Dermatology: A Reflection. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2022 Nov;15(11):27-29. PMID: 36381186; PMCID: PMC9651153.

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18 Equipment That’ll Elevate Any Vacation Look




Dressing for all the vacation occasions you could have will be overwhelming and nerve-racking; who has the time to plan out six totally different festive outfits inside a couple of weeks? Not I. And with the vacations being pricy to start with, you in all probability don’t wish to be shopping for one thing new for each occasion you could have. The answer? Festive hair equipment you’ll be able to throw on to raise any look to 1 that’s holiday-ready.

Hair equipment are having fairly the second—specifically hair bows in all sizes and shapes—which is the blessing we deserved to shut out 2023. The addition of a festive-feeling hair accent could make even a black-on-black outfit really feel holiday-ready in a pinch, which is a savior for a season jam-packed with occasions. Investing in a few hair equipment I can combine and match with my present wardrobe is the vacation dressing hack I’m counting on for all of December (and actually, in all probability all future Decembers, too). These are the most effective hair equipment of the 2023 vacation season.

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I Tried the Injectable Moisturizer| Nicely+Good




A decade in the past, there was a therapy referred to as Profhilo that girls in sure circles of New York Metropolis’s higher crust have been clamoring about. Not but accessible in america, they’d board personal jets and set off to Paris to see the physician who many alleged to be Kate Middleton’s dermatologist.

Per week or so after getting Profhilo, they’d emerge from Chanel-ed cocoons with bouncy, juicy pores and skin that seemed so gleamy that folks would speculate how they’d achieved it. The reply? Round 30 or so injections to every facet of the face, distributing an injectable moisturizer comprised of hyaluronic acid. And now, a brand new rendition of this therapy referred to as Skinvive has arrived stateside for these of us with out trans-continental dermatologists.

When neuromodulators, like Botox, and injectable fillers like Juvederm and Restylane, first arrived in the marketplace, folks have been skeptical and judgemental about the necessity to put a needle in your pores and skin for a desired impact. Analysis signifies that adoption of each Botox and filler is turning into extra widespread, with one McKinsey report noting that “social stigmas round injectables could also be receding and even that inaction could also be considered self-neglect.”

Suffice it to say, we’re gone the needle-weary days, and lots of the greatest issues you are able to do in your pores and skin happen within the dermatologist’s workplace, together with this new-to-market moisturizer.

What’s Skinvive?

Skinvive is a microdroplet hyaluronic acid injectable that’s put into the pores and skin with a needle. “Not like different injectable hyaluronic acids in the marketplace that present quantity and alter the contour of the face, Skinvive is supposed to work as an injectable pores and skin hydrator with out including quantity, concentrating on pores and skin high quality, bettering texture, hydration, and basic pores and skin radiance,” says Carmen Castilla, MD, M.D, a board-certified dermatologist at New York Dermatology Group and scientific teacher at Mount Sinai Hospital.

Hyaluronic acid is a recognized humectant that holds 1,000 occasions its weight in water, making it a terrific contributor to pores and skin hydration. Based on Dr. Castilla, the main retailer of hyaluronic acid is within the dermal layer. We’re all born with naturally occurring hyaluronic acid in our pores and skin; nevertheless, as we age, our pores and skin’s shops of it deplete.

This leaves pores and skin wanting prefer it has much less quantity than normal, and it could actually additionally make it seem duller. Injectors repair the primary challenge with fillers that restore plumpness to our complexions, they usually repair the latter with Skinvive, “which replenishes depleted hyaluronic acid shops resulting in an elevated means to retain water and finally bettering pores and skin high quality,” says Dr. Castilla.

This is able to both be a very good possibility for somebody who’s trying to enhance the early indicators of pores and skin getting older and pores and skin high quality however not somebody trying to goal quantity loss, or it ought to be used at the side of one other product to assist restore quantity to the pores and skin’s areas.

Sometimes, a single Skinvive therapy lasts six months, with the physique metabolizing the product over time, based on Mona Gohara, MD, a board-certified New Haven-based dermatologist. Importantly, this can be a mega-leap from what Profhilo provided with month-long outcomes that stored these personal jets a lot busy.

What does a SkinVive therapy really feel like?

I discovered myself once more sitting in NYC dermatologist Dendy Engelman MD’s chair on the Fifth Avenue Shaffer Clinic (my Paris). Dr. Engelman, who had just lately seen me for my preliminary into Fraxel, numbed my cheeks and advised me to attend for about half-hour. Whereas some docs forgo this step, you’re getting poked many occasions over, and it’s good to have the ability to soften the jab.

After I used to be numbed, Dr. Engelman got here again into the workplace and prepped the product. I seemed to the facet, and he or she pricked me with the needle roughly thirty occasions on every cheek. The injections wouldn’t have been any large deal—they largely felt like a Botox injection—besides that there have been so many extra of them than I’m used to.

Even nonetheless, from the time the primary prick occurred to the final measured round ten or quarter-hour. As with filler, the outcomes have been near fast (although, importantly, the model says that outcomes really develop over the course of a few weeks). I noticed an enchancment within the texture of my pores and skin, and because the days glided by it helped to take down a number of the rosacea that I’ve in my cheeks.

What else to learn about SkinVive

Proper now, the one on-label use (a time period meaning it’s been authorized by the Meals and Drug Administration, the entity that regulates beauty procedures) is for the cheeks. Nevertheless, Dr. Castilla surmises that it’s seemingly for use off-label (or in ways in which the FDA hasn’t authorized) for locations just like the decolletage and the backs of the arms.

Importantly, Skinvive doesn’t essentially take the place of your moisturizers or serums, however reasonably works with them. “It has been proven to extend aquaporins within the pores and skin, that are channels within the cell membrane that management the stream of water into and out of the cells,” says Dr. Castilla. “Growing aquaporins within the cell membrane can enable for water to diffuse into the cells extra readily, which may help with hydration.”

In tandem with Skinvive, Dr. Castilla additionally encourages utilizing sunscreen and merchandise that amp up your individual shops of collagen and elastin. For these in search of therapies to pair with Skinvive, she says to look to resurfacing lasers that increase collagen and elastin and enhance pores and skin high quality, together with chemical peels or mico-needling to enhance the general pores and skin texture.

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Pores and skin Barrier Well being Will Be Large in 2024 Magnificence




It’s uncommon to seek out skin-care recommendation that’s one-size-fits-all, however within the dermatological world, there’s an exception: Sturdy pores and skin is wholesome pores and skin. It doesn’t matter what sort of complexion you’ve or your distinctive issues, “a robust pores and skin barrier is the only most essential issue [in maintaining skin health],” says John “Jay” Wofford, MD, a board-certified dermatologist with U.S. Dermatology Companions. And in 2024, the wonder trade will ship the instruments we all want to attain precisely that.

Your pores and skin barrier is made up of lipids and cells, and serves as the primary line of protection in opposition to the weather. It’s liable for retaining unhealthy stuff, like air pollution and micro organism, out, whereas trapping great things, like moisture, in. When the pores and skin barrier is functioning correctly, your complexion will possible be hydrated and wholesome; when it’s compromised, you turn into weak to a complete host of issues. Extreme barrier points can result in pores and skin circumstances like eczema and rosacea, however even a minimally-disrupted barrier can result in dryness, irritation, irritation, and zits. 

“Barrier well being has all the time been a spotlight for dermatologists, however most individuals used to assume it was solely essential when you had rosacea, delicate pores and skin, or eczema,” says David Kim, MD, a board-certified dermatologist based mostly in New York. However that isn’t the case, he says: Even individuals who don’t have an underlying medical situation can inadvertently weaken their pores and skin barrier. “It could possibly impression anybody within the normal inhabitants, as a result of when the barrier is disrupted, moisture escapes and the pores and skin begins to get dry and cracked, which permits irritants and micro organism to enter the pores and skin and set off irritation,” he says. 

Yearly that goes by, our society is changing into more and more extra targeted on pores and skin well being

John Wofford, MD

Specialists credit score the elevated total consideration on pores and skin well being as a key motive why barrier well being goes to be so sizzling within the coming yr. “Yearly that goes by, our society is changing into more and more extra targeted on pores and skin well being,” says Dr. Wofford, noting that this phenomenon began to select up throughout the 2020 lockdown. “Earlier than, the final inhabitants most likely didn’t actually wish to hear in regards to the pores and skin barrier and the physiology of how the pores and skin works, however now that they’re a lot extra targeted on pores and skin well being, they wish to perceive what’s happening. So, corporations have gotten extra scientific with what they’re speaking about to focus on their merchandise and provides shoppers what they need.” 

The pores and skin barrier pattern has been percolating over the previous couple of years. In early 2022, #skinbarrier had 300 million views on TikTok, now it has greater than 5.7 billion; searches for “pores and skin barrier” elevated 51 p.c throughout that very same interval; and mannequin Hailey Bieber launched her skin-care line Rhode in 2022 with a Barrier Restore Cream ($29). However in 2024, barrier well being is coming nearer to the forefront, as a result of it’s not a need—it’s a necessity. 

Analysis has discovered that the prevalence of atopic dermatitis—a sort of eczema that’s characterised by an especially weakened pores and skin barrier and impacts 2 to 10 p.c of adults in developed international locations—has elevated two- to three-fold in current many years, and there are a couple of various factors at play to clarify why. A 2023 empirical assessment posits that the excessive temperature fluctuations attributable to the local weather disaster are responsible. Different analysis has discovered that low temperatures and low humidity result in a normal lower in barrier perform. “As international warming will get worse and we now have extra extreme climate fluctuations and extra UV publicity, it’s important to complement the pores and skin with the fitting merchandise so it might adapt to the surroundings,” says Dr. Kim. 

Along with environmental components inflicting extreme barrier disruption, dermatologists attribute some on a regular basis issues round pores and skin barrier well being (assume: dryness, flaking, irritation, and zits) to what persons are doing of their routines. “Individuals are utilizing extra lively elements, and their pores and skin boundaries have gotten compromised,” says Dr. Kim, noting that the improper use of harsh actives like retinol, vitamin C, and exfoliating acids can strip the pores and skin, weakening the barrier and inflicting sensitivities. “Now, [people are] in search of methods to include actives whereas retaining that barrier sturdy so it doesn’t get irritated.” (This, largely, explains why niacinamide—a mild antioxidant that brightens pores and skin, evens discoloration, and fights zits with out irritation—has been exhibiting up in every single place recently.) 

“Individuals are utilizing extra lively elements, and their pores and skin boundaries have gotten compromised.”

David Kim, MD, board-certified dermatologist

Fortunately, caring in your pores and skin barrier is pretty easy. Ceramides, glycerin, and fatty acids have lengthy been thought of the “massive three” for pores and skin barrier restore (and have historically been staples in lotions and different merchandise from trade heavyweights like Cerave and Cetaphil). Calming elements like Centella Asiatica and colloidal oatmeal are sometimes included alongside them to assuage irritated pores and skin. However although the options for strengthening pores and skin haven’t modified within the 4 many years (since ceramides entered the beauty lexicon), the best way they’re being delivered—and marketed—to shoppers has. 

Barrier-building elements had been as soon as completely obtainable in thick lotions designed to deal with dry pores and skin, however now, they’re making their means into lighter-weight merchandise extra appropriate for reinforcing the pores and skin barrier for shiny pores and skin and acne-prone pores and skin. In October Paula’s Alternative launched its Barrier Restore Superior Moisturizer ($38), which boosts pores and skin’s pure manufacturing of ceramides to strengthen the barrier and permit for higher moisture retention; RoC launched its Barrier Renew Necessities Assortment ($50) that features light-weight a.m. and p.m. moisturizers in addition to a gel-to-foam cleanser, all of that are jam-packed with ceramides; Murad launched a Mobile Hydration Restore Serum ($72) that’s infused with peptides and fatty acids to spice up your physique’s pure manufacturing of ceramides, strengthening the pores and skin barrier inside half-hour of utility. One month earlier, Payot launched an Adaptogenic Spray Moisturizer ($44) infused with antioxidants to defend in opposition to the environmental impacts on pores and skin barrier well being. On the finish of this month, Drunk Elephant will launch its Bora Bora Barrier Restore Cream, which promotes the pure manufacturing of skin-strengthening lipids; and in early 2024, Saint Jane will enter the barrier-care class with its new Magnificence Star Flower Serum, which encapsulates niacinamide within micropearl bubbles that burst after they enter the pores and skin to offer strengthening advantages from the within out. 

And for these coping with extra extreme underlying barrier issues, like eczema and rosacea, treating the signs at residence has by no means been simpler

Physique care is getting a barrier-friendly improve, too. Marie Veronique, Cyklar, REN, and PerriconeMD all launched barrier-focused physique merchandise within the again half of this yr. And on the prime of 2023, Dove launched its Bathe Assortment for Pores and skin Circumstances, which options three physique washes designed to focus on eczema-prone, dry-cracked, and hyper-reactive pores and skin. Looking forward to the approaching months, Advanced By Nature will launch a physique wash that employs the model’s proprietary activated silk ingredient to assist the pores and skin’s pure manufacturing of claudins, a protein that holds barrier cells collectively to maintain moisture in and irritants out. 

And for these coping with extra extreme underlying barrier issues, like eczema and rosacea, treating the signs at residence has by no means been simpler (although you’ll nonetheless wish to seek the advice of a dermatologist for the very best plan of action in your particular person wants). Previously yr, drugstore and luxurious manufacturers alike—together with No. 7, Olay, Murad, Typology, and Alpyn Magnificence—have all launched merchandise that concentrate on these issues, and in November, a brand new model known as Re/Cowl hit the market with moisturizing patches that deal with eczema flares in the identical means pimple patches zap zits. Within the dermatological world, a brand new eczema drug from Lilly known as lebrikizumab has proven promise in strengthening the pores and skin barrier in scientific trials (it really works by blocking the proteins that set off the inflammatory loop within the pores and skin to stave off barrier dysfunction, itch, and an infection), and might be obtainable through prescription as early as subsequent yr. 

Come 2024, energy coaching our pores and skin will turn into so central to our routines that many people received’t even notice we’re doing it—however our complexions might be all the higher for it.

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Properly+Good articles reference scientific, dependable, current, strong research to again up the knowledge we share. You possibly can belief us alongside your wellness journey.

  1. Kolb L, Ferrer-Bruker SJ. Atopic Dermatitis. [Updated 2023 Aug 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Accessible from:
  2. Jessica W. Hui-Beckman, Elena Goleva, Donald Y.M. Leung, Byung Eui Kim,
    The impression of temperature on the pores and skin barrier and atopic dermatitis,
    Annals of Allergy, Bronchial asthma & Immunology, Quantity 131, Situation 6, 2023, Pages 713-719, ISSN 1081-1206,
  3. Engebretsen, Okay.A., Johansen, J.D., Kezic, S., Linneberg, A. and Thyssen, J.P. (2016), The impact of environmental humidity and temperature on pores and skin barrier perform and dermatitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 30: 223-249. 
  4. Overgaard CE, Daugherty BL, Mitchell LA, Koval M. Claudins: management of barrier perform and regulation in response to oxidant stress. Antioxid Redox Sign. 2011 Sep 1;15(5):1179-93. doi: 10.1089/ars.2011.3893. Epub 2011 Could 9. PMID: 21275791; PMCID: PMC3144428.

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